In Vivo PK
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In Vivo PK

As an experienced comprehensive biomedical preclinical R&D services CRO, based on advanced technology and expert scientists, BOC Sciences is committed to providing in vivo PK services to facilitate your drug discovery process.

PK Profile

Pharmacokinetics (PK) refers to the quantitative description of the in vivo process of drugs using kinetic principles and mathematical processing methods, that is, the process of absorption (A), distribution (D), metabolism (M) and excretion (E) of drugs (including foreign substances) in an organism over time.

  • Absorption (A)

The process of transporting a drug from the site of administration into the blood.

  • Distribution (D)

The process of distributing the drug with the blood into the tissues of the body.

  • Metabolism (M)

Before excretion, the drug is often converted into a form that can be easily excreted, such as reduced lipid solubility and increased polarity, known as metabolism.

  • Excretion (E)

The process of absorbing drugs into the body or expelling the metabolized products out of the body.

Important Parameters of PK

  • Biological half-life (T1/2) is the time required for the plasma drug concentration to drop by half. Its length can reflect the rate of drug elimination in the body.
  • Clearance (CL) is the volume of plasma cleared by the body's elimination organs per unit time, i.e. how much of the volume of plasma containing the drug is cleared by the body per unit time. It is the sum of drug clearance by the liver, kidneys and all other elimination organs in the body.
  • Apparent volume of distribution (Vd) refers to the volume of body fluid required to distribute a drug in the body at its plasma drug concentration after equilibrium has been reached between plasma and tissue drug distribution.
  • Bioavailability (F) is the relative amount of a drug absorbed into the systemic circulation after administration via the extravascular route. It can be divided into absolute bioavailability and relative bioavailability.

Significance of In Vivo PK Studies

  • In vivo PK studies provide an important basis for designing and optimizing dosing regimens for clinical studies (human equivalent dose (HED), no effect level (NOEL) and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) drivers), to ensure the safety and rationality of clinical research medication.
  • In vivo PK studies help to understand the target organs of drug efficacy or toxicity and to elucidate the material basis of drug efficacy or toxicity.
  • In vivo PK studies provide important clues for pharmacodynamic and toxicological evaluations, which can guide the development of new, safer and more effective drugs and the formulation of rescue measures for poisoning.

Our In Vivo PK Service

  • Method development and validation
  • Rank-ordering compounds/formulations
  • Bioavailability and bioequivalence
  • Dose proportionality (ascending dose)
  • Dose linearity (multiple dose)
  • Drug-drug interactions
  • Tissue distribution (non-radioactive and radioactive)
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Anti-drug antibodies
  • Non-compartmental and compartmental pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics modeling

In Vivo PK

  • Canine
  • Feline
  • Guinea Pig
  • Hamster
  • Marmoset
  • Mini-pig
  • Mouse
  • NHP
  • Rabbit
  • Rat
Administration routes and collection
  • Single agents, cassette dosing, single dose and repeat dose
  • Dosing by PO, IV, IP, SC, etc.
  • Serial sampling for all species
  • Microsampling
  • Tissue, urine and cerebrospinal fluid collection
  • Bile collection via bile duct cannula (BDC)
  • Fully integrated bioanalytical services
Surgical models
  • Bile duct cannulation
  • Portal vein cannulation
  • Vascular access ports
  • Intestinal access ports
Biological substrate collection
  • whole blood
  • Plasma
  • Serum
  • Urine and feces
  • Bile
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Various tissues
  • LC-MS
  • MS
  • RT-PCR
  • Radioisotope labeling
  • etc.
Data analysisPhoenix WinNonlin and Gastrol plus for PK/PD and PBPK calculations and simulations

Service features

  • Extensive experience in PK model development with a comprehensive range of in vivo techniques
  • AAALAC-accredited animal facilities
  • Formulation support, including formulation screening, development and formulation recommendations for various species and strains
  • PK/PD data analysis, modeling and simulation
  • State-of-the-art instrumentation
  • Fast project turnaround time
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Quality assurance and high method reproducibility

Quotation and Ordering

As with all of our live services, we make sure to keep in touch during the study. If you have any special needs or questions about our services, please feel free to contact us to support our experienced experts. We look forward to working with you in the future.